Of award nominations, the film won 48 prizes. It was the first movie to win Best Picture without winning either a directing or screenwriting award since All the King's Men at the 22nd Academy Awards in In , Chicago became another Best Picture winner which didn't win an Academy Award in either of these two major categories. The film's mainstream success is responsible for an increased interest in Roman and classical history in the United States. It's called the 'Gladiator' effect by writers and publishers. The snob in us likes to believe that it is always books that spin off movies.
And not for more Roman screen colossals, but for writing that is serious or fun or both. The character of Maximus was placed 12th in the Total Film list of 50 best movie heroes and villains  and 35th in the Empire 's Greatest Movie Characters. The film was first released on DVD on November 21, , and has since been released in several different extended and special edition versions. Special features for the Blu-ray Disc and DVDs include deleted scenes , trailers , documentaries , commentaries , storyboards , image galleries, Easter eggs , and cast auditions.
The film was released on Blu-ray in September , in a 2-disc edition containing both the theatrical and extended cuts of the film, as part of Paramount 's "Sapphire Series" Paramount acquired the rights to the film when it bought the DreamWorks library in The DVD editions that have been released since the original two-disc version, include a film only single-disc edition as well as a three-disc "extended edition" DVD which was released in August The extended edition DVD features approximately fifteen minutes of additional scenes, most of which appear in the previous release as deleted scenes.
The original cut, which Scott still calls his director's cut, is also select-able via seamless branching which is not included on the UK edition. The film is on the first disc, the second one has a three-hour documentary into the making of the film by DVD producer Charles de Lauzirika , and the third disc contains supplements. Discs one and two of the three-disc extended edition were also repackaged and sold as a two-disc "special edition" in the EU in In June , Douglas Wick said a Gladiator prequel was in development.
However, Russell Crowe was interested in resurrecting Maximus, and further researched Roman beliefs about the afterlife to accomplish this. This includes a suggestion by Parkes that, in order to enable Russell Crowe to return to play Maximus, who dies at the end of the original movie, a sequel could involve a "multi-generational drama about Maximus and the Aureleans and this chapter of Rome", similar in concept to The Godfather Part II.
In , Scott stated he and Crowe approached Nick Cave to rewrite the film, but their ideas conflicted with DreamWorks's idea of a spin-off involving Lucius, whom Scott revealed would turn out to be Maximus's son with Lucilla. Scott noted that a tale of corruption in Rome was too complex, whereas Gladiator worked due to its simple drive. This script for a sequel, however, was rejected as being too far-fetched, and not in keeping with the spirit and theme of the original film. By November , it was announced that Paramount Pictures is developing a sequel, which Universal has the option to co-finance, with Scott returning as director and Peter Craig writing the script.
In June , Parkes and MacDonald confirmed that the sequel was still in development with Scott and Craig, saying, "We're working with Ridley Scott, that's one we wouldn't touch unless we felt in a way to do it was legitimate. We're working with an amazing writer as well, Peter Craig. It picks up the story 30 years later From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
Theatrical release poster. Hans Zimmer Lisa Gerrard. United Kingdom  United States . Main article: Gladiator soundtrack. Main article: List of accolades received by Gladiator. Film portal. Archived from the original on Retrieved July 30, British Board of Film Classification. Retrieved June 2, British Film Institute.
Retrieved American Film Institute.
Retrieved 25 June Box Office Mojo. Retrieved August 7, The Bible Continues'?
Theater Scene". Retrieved 31 December Winkler ed. January 4, Archived from the original on March 24, Retrieved July 5, University of Massachusetts Lowell. Archived PDF from the original on Retrieved 12 June University of Connecticut. Retrieved December 8, The Roman Emperors.
Pertinax, Publius Helvius Emperor of Rome 126-193
Cincinnatus Leaves His Plow. Archived at the Wayback Machine , roman-emperors. Accessed Gladiator: film and history. Livius, Articles on ancient history. Retrieved 13 February Australian National University. Retrieved 20 June The Nitpickers Site. The Praetorian Guard Elite. Osprey Publishing. Winkler June 23, , Scholia Reviews ns 14 Rotten Tomatoes. Fandango Media. Retrieved February 27, BBC News. Entertainment Weekly. Chicago Sun-Times. Retrieved February 21, Retrieved 16 March Retrieved May 31, The Independent. July 8, The Guardian. Retrieved May 3, Retrieved 12 March This article is the first report of the histopathological effects of the Bti endotoxins in the midgut of S.
Key words: Bacillus thuringiensis serovar israelensis - Simulium pertinax -midgut - histopathology - ultrastructure. Bacillus thuringiensis Bt is a Gram-positive, aerobic bacterium, producing parasporal crystals containing d -endotoxins responsible for its selective insecticidal activity Knowles , Schnepf et al. Upon ingestion by susceptible insects, these crystals are dissolved in the midgut lumen.
Most of the simuliids are hematophagus insects; they are involved in the transmission of human onchocerciasis, mainly in the North of Brazil. Simulium pertinax is the most important species in Southeast region inducing a negative socio-economic impact. The frequent and intensive attacks by S.
After isolation of the B. Histophatological investigations in larvae of S. The present report describes sequential changes in the midgut of S. It was maintained in agar medium with metals-ANM at room temperature Rabinovitch et al. Inoculum and biomass production -Growth started with a pre-inoculum to reduce the duration of the lag-phase of bacterial growth. Subsequently, 3 ml were transferred to ml Erlenmeyer flasks containing ml of the soya flour and metals medium and incubated as previously described for a further 72 h period.
Bioassay with S. Field-collected larvae were maintained in chambers where the water was aerated by a continuous stream of air bubbles. The exposure times employed ranged from 1 to 4 h. Only live larvae were examined. At the end of each time period the larvae were observed under a stereoscopic microscope and the head and anal region were dissected and discarded Cavados The remainder of the larval body was fixed and processed for observation using light and electron microscopy.
Light microscopy LM - Semi-thin sections were made from intestine samples previously embedded in Epon, stained with a methilene blue-azure II solution in phosphate buffer 0. Electron microscopy TEM - Samples of the intestine were fixed in 2. Ultrathin sections were stained with uranyl acetate and lead citrate Reynolds and examined with a Zeiss EM electron microscope. The non-infected Simulium control midgut shows a well-preserved layer of epithelial cells.
The ovoid shaped nuclei are located in the center of the cell Fig. Long and regularly placed microvilli border the midgut lumen Fig. L: intestinal lumen; P: peritrophic membrane; AR: alimentar residues; semithin section. M: mitochondria; transmission electron micrograph. Note cell swelling and strong emission of secreted bubbles arrows. Note the strong vacuolization of columnar cells, partially non-altered brush borders arrow and strongly altered columnar cells with secreted bubbles. Note non-altered microvilli but strong alterations of cytoplasmic structure and organelles; transmission electron micrograph.
Note strongly altered microvilli and secreted substances between and also cell vacuolization. Note proliferation of rough endoplasmic reticulum derived vesicles arrow that in sequence lost their ribosomes arrowhead. Note the fragmented chromatin inside the nucleus N , vacuolization of the cytoplasm and destroyed brush border arrow. The cells begin to be swollen by a slight vacuolization and increasing of secretion vesicles. This feature is confirmed when observed by ultrastructure Fig. From 3 to 4 h after applying the endotoxin, structural changes occur in some of the epithelial cells Fig.
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